It seems to me that the most powerful approach is to decentralise government.
I have been involved for a decade in a local coastal management group, operating on a consensus decision making process and involving all interest groups – commercial, recreational and charter fishers, conservation groups, local Maori, local council, tourist interest, educational interests and the science community.
It seems clear that to work effectively, any proposed management has to be able to deal with all of the practical realities of all of the parties involved. That is rarely a trivial exercise, and rarely can it be achieved by any central authority.
It takes a lot of time and energy to build understanding and trust. Not simple, and achievable.
And it requires active participation.
That is the hardest thing at any level of politics, gaining active participation.
In a very real sense, we all get the level of governance we are prepared to tolerate.